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每个游戏设计者都该学习的7个战斗系统

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不论是老式街机上的《街头霸王》波动拳,还是3D动作游戏中的力搏群敌,格斗系统是否出色往往是决定一款游戏成败的关键。

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流畅、迟滞、过瘾……玩家常用这些词来描述游戏中的格斗场景,但却很难确切地指出为什么不同的格斗系统有何差异。并非每个游戏都需要加入大量的连击或复杂的特效。毕竟有一些格斗作品,只凭借简单的跳跃动作就可以名垂游戏史。

今天我们找到几位优秀的格斗设计师,来介绍一下他们对格斗系统的理解。

《战神》(God of War)

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“《战神》的设计师都是从小打《街头霸王》长大的玩家。”作家兼游戏设计师大卫·塞林(David Sirlin)说。他还是策略格斗游戏《梦幻袭击(Fantasy Strike)》的开发者,该作即将发行。

“这类经验有助于他们设计出体验满意度高的格斗。有些东西在普通的格斗游戏里不能采用,因为会显得太不公平,但在单人游戏中完全可以采用。在单人游戏中,即便玩家显得无比强大也没关系。”

例如,让主角克雷多斯(Kratos)的许多动作可以流畅地克制对手的技能,如他的“无敌滚翻”。当玩家想撤回一个动作,转换为另外一个招式时,《战神》很好地运用了动画融合技术,让画面看起来仍然完美。

“还有‘击打停顿(hit pause)’”塞林说,“这是格斗游戏术语,意思是当一记攻击落到敌人身上时,游戏会为了营造强烈的戏剧性效果而短暂停顿。”

大多数游戏会以大约10帧表现击打停顿,而《战神》里的停顿时间则长很多。“在3D游戏中,让动作像爬行般缓慢地呈现,效果其实是最好的,而并非像2D游戏那样单纯停顿。但《战神》中的击打停顿创造了非常惊人的体验。”

《鬼泣3》(Devil May Cry 3)

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“《战神》有意设计成了容易上手的游戏,”塞林说,“但《鬼泣》控制起来就相对复杂得多,目的是让玩家感到挑战。设计者采用了《战神》中没有的方式,让玩家获得全新的操控性。在和敌人对抗中(按住键不放达到对抗),面朝敌人或背向敌人同时按住键不放,朝向不同会发出不同的动作。这款游戏里玩家能够做出更多的动作,他们还特别注重复杂的combo连击系统。感觉上,就像《职业滑板高手(Tony Hawk)》那样, 总能通过更高明的连续组合动作获得更高分数。

《街头霸王》(Street Fighter)系列

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“在我看来,《超级街头霸王2 Turbo》是最高境界。”格斗游戏网络社区知名成员、PC端格斗游戏《 雷霆崛起(Rising Thunder)》的制作人瑟斯·吉利安(Seth Killian)说。“用‘细腻的平衡’或‘完美的平衡’这样的词汇,还不足以描述出它的优秀。那简直是神来之笔。”

“这款游戏让人如此感兴趣,主要还在于它非常危险。当遇到强敌时候,玩家死得很快。迅速、危险,让我联想到战争。游戏经常开始感觉平安无事,你施展着少量拳脚本领,控制着地盘,然后别人来了,你就被毁灭了。我喜欢那种紧张感。就像走钢丝表演。”

塞林说,《街霸》系列还教给我们重要一课,即,哪些东西不行。“《街霸3:三度冲击》是一部好的反面教材,告诉我们游戏的格斗系统是如何失败的,”塞林说,“招架动作如果不配合whiff动画效果,抛投物会显得难看,游戏的zoning(立回,意为试探性动作)感会大大削弱。大多数玩家会忽略zoning,仅仅玩近身格斗。除以上几点外,《街霸3》还是我所知道的格斗游戏中平衡最差的一个。尽管有粉丝喜爱,它在这方面的设计是个败笔。”

《猎天使魔女》(Bayonetta)

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即将推出的游戏《阿兹特克人(Aztez)》开发者本·瑞兹(Ben Ruiz)认为,《猎天使魔女》拥有“制作最精美的格斗引擎”。

“每个基本动作机制都完美无瑕,”瑞兹说。“她的奔跑、跳跃、闪避都表现得的华丽而有效力,一切元素都很完美。每一次进攻、每一件武器都能带来奇妙的视觉效果和情绪感受。动画效果迅疾利落、不留余地,加速和减速曲线也十分完美。”

“攻击敌人很具冲击力,但杀死敌人的感官体验更是超级梦幻。攻击特效简洁明了但又威力强大,而且细腻动人得无法理喻。一大批不同元素和屏幕效果令人吃惊地同步展现,又能和谐共存。每种武器都可以达到这样的效果。”

也许,关键还在于这款游戏的每一种动作都能通过闪避或跳跃来消除,只是闪避不能消除本身的效果。“这会让玩家觉得游戏的反应灵敏,并且有效可控。”

《罪恶装备》系列(Guilty Gear series)

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《罪恶装备》系列,包括最近出的《罪恶装备Xrd》,每部都可称为最优秀的格斗游戏,”塞林说。“《罪恶装备》的人物变化多样,又都具备几个必要功能,使得每个角色都有能力对付任何威胁。所有人物都拥有一般性防御选项和保护:如绿色光环防护(绝对防御)、白色光环防护(瞬间防御)、阿尔法作用(即dead angle攻击)、渐进体重系统、击晕衰退、防御槽、Burst能量槽、f+p抗损伤等等。”

“Burst得专门谈谈。设计团队从《杀手本能(Killer Instinct)》中吸取了一种貌似十分可笑的的东西,叫做Combo Breaker(意为“连击逃脱”),这本是任何严肃格斗游戏都不会用的,但设计团队神奇地将其变成了一种有趣的“免费出狱卡”,玩家可以在每轮格斗中用一次,但也有可能被诡计多端的对手加以利用,诱骗你上当。这个设计的妙处令其它格斗游戏(特别是漫威对卡普空3)感觉到没有Burst是一个缺憾。”

《刀魂》(Soul Calibur)

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“这款游戏的8-way run系统(在线竞技平台)感觉棒极了,”塞林说。“其实,这是我找到的最容易用来指导新手的格斗游戏。按住向上键朝屏幕移动,或按住下键朝屏幕外移动,操作非常容易掌握。玩家还能使用许多动作,并不需要发出非常复杂的指令。基本上任何方向键甚至任何按键都能发起不同的动作。总的来说,它的对战系统是《VR战士(Virtual Fighter)》的简化版,没有后者那么深。但它非常简明,所以我比较喜欢它。”

《蝙蝠侠:阿卡姆疯人院》(Batman:Arkham Asylum)

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吉利安认为,这款游戏的打康(Counter)设计做得非常有意思。当你按键进行反击时,帧窗口会变得相当大——帧数差不多达到了四五十帧。这在格斗游戏中算是非常大的。

“打康时的帧窗口很大,”吉利安说,“不但增加了游戏的趣味性,也降低了难度,但他们的处理方法十分巧妙。40-50帧足够实现从按键到屏幕上出现效果之间的延迟感,但同时也削弱了即时感,爽利动作没有了。

“他们的做法巧妙在于,当你按下Counter指令键,蝙蝠侠立即旋转,他的斗篷飞起,遮住屏幕前台,这是典型的蝙蝠侠动作。感觉超赞。第一,这会加强蝙蝠侠的生动性,人们的确期望蝙蝠侠做出这样的飞旋动作。同时,他的斗篷一转遮住屏幕,也遮住了等着拳头落到蝙蝠侠身上的坏人。你会希望坏人挥拳时可以触发打康效果,但除非帧窗口很小,否则很难实现。

“一般来说,成功的打康要么帧速很快,要么延缓从按下键钮到眼睛看见屏幕动作之间的时间。但它们都不是很理想的解决方案,前者容易让玩家总是输,后者又会让玩家觉得命令好像是无效的。斗篷的旋转巧妙解决了这个难题,既让普通玩家满意,又有灵敏的回应感。尽管实际上明明是游戏让你动不了,但你还是感到自己像个坏蛋。”

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