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新手怎么写好游戏策划案?

入门知识 huarun 7958浏览 23评论

看到很多人在关注“新手怎么写好游戏策划案?”带了几年策划,我觉得这个问题还是很在点子上的。公司往往不会要求没有经验的策划新人来几个天才的点子,越是大成本的项目越是如此。所以怎样能顺利的完成策划的基本任务是很多公司希望新人策划能够做好的。所以“怎么写好策划案”我个人认为是个非常好的问题。

策划案(GDD)的作用

策划案的最大作用就是让人理解策划内容,副加留底备份和统一团队理解等作用这里可以不论。

所以策划写策划案的基本功就是清晰易懂准确的表达。而“清晰易懂准确”这六个字容易理解,但是真正做到的话就是千奇百怪,各有各的招了。下面的内容主要是给大家参考,个人觉得策划案是没有硬规范的,好的策划其策划案本身也会充满创意。

基础部分

1. 框架是基本

GDD的框架和程序框架一样非常重要,他能使策划对自己的设计有更系统的认识,读者能够有条理的理解,方便程序或者美术去理解和寻找自己需要的内容。

下面是网上盛传的GTA的初代GDD的目录页:

b3812338ea85ad47c8e83b764a7403c3_b

这个结构是个游戏业比较常见的总策划案的结构,先从概述和平台开始,然后感性上介绍设计概念和背景,接着从系统上细分Gameplay的各个部分,最后描述团队/时间等具体开发相关的内容。

大家可以看到,如果你第一次拿到这个策划案,你马上能够知道自己想要了解的部分在哪里,系统是怎样分类,哪些内容重要/独特。比如警察(6.5 Police)这个系统,就很能体现出GTA的特色,其他人(不论是程序还是老板),看到后都会知道在这个游戏里,警察将会是很重要也很特殊的一个系统。

当然新手策划往往会接手的是5 Specification 或者 6 Gameplay部分,这也是策划工作的主要部分,不太会直接去涉及其他内容。

2. 表述要简洁准确

写策划案不是写小说,很多时候要求策划用定义式的语句去描述。这也要求策划本身有比较好的概括能力。

我们可以用描述“策划案”这个设计来尝试一下:

(1)2X版

游戏策划案

游戏策划案就是游戏的策划案。

别笑,还真有这样写策划案的。很多会觉得这个概念不需要解释,或者觉得自己心里很明白但表达不出来,就采用这种类似的方法表达。让人看了不知所云,云里雾里。

(2)普通版

游戏策划案

游戏策划案是由游戏策划完成的,给程序,美术等看的游戏内容的策划文档。它的作用是帮助其他开发者理解游戏的内容,统一团队对策划的认识并留底保存。

正常人都能够用自己的理解去尝试表达想要描述的概念,尽力把它说清楚。但是不一定经过深思熟虑,同时对于阅读,查阅和理解并非是最好方案。

(3)初级游戏策划师版

游戏策划案

定义:

由游戏策划完成的,给程序,美术等看的游戏内容的策划文档。

作用:

帮助其他开发者理解游戏的内容,统一团队对策划的认识并留底保存。

我在这里主要体现了两个变化,一个是结构化,二是简单,清晰化。

初级的游戏策划师能够明白结构化的东西更容易体现概念之间的关系,同时能帮助语句变得简洁。同时注意,这两个“句子”其实都是没有主语和句号的。但这样其实在阅读理解上会变得更加容易,查找也更方便了。

(4)进阶游戏策划师版

游戏策划案

定义:

表达游戏策划内容的载体。

作用:

帮助开发者理解游戏的内容。

统一认识

留底。

这里的变化主要体现在更加精简和准确的用词,以及更多的结构化。不过更准确的描述有可能会带来“不易理解”的副作用。比如这里去掉了“游戏策划完成的”表示其实策划案谁都可以为策划案做贡献,把”文档“改成了”载体“说明了形式并非单一,但是这些变化会引起阅读的困难,往往需要额外解释一下。

所以这种表达方式并非一定更好。但是一般在较大的项目内会更倾向于用这种方式表达,因为大项目的策划文档一般都是在一个主策划文档的基础上展开的,主策划文档涵盖的内容非常的多,所以会把多余的解释放到文档之外(另起文档或者会议表达),准确和精炼更为重要。

3. 图是你的好朋友

一张图片往往比N多大段文字来的直观清楚的多。

哪里用图,用什么样的图,是根据实际情况来的,但是有以下两种情况往往是图比文字好:

(1)流程图 (Workflow)

cc4df3bbd4d301fea6ae6434c289a8cd_b

特别是有分支的流程图,关系一目了然。比如游戏循环,UI结构,AI都喜欢用流程图来表示其转化关系。

这里顺便推荐大家一个画流程图的工具,微软Office套件里的Visio,很多人可能已经知道了,但是我还是在这里赘述一句。

(2)UI/HUD界面

f3f4a09595063a23fa6dbd19940d39a6_b

UI或者HUD当然拿顺手的工具做张图比较好。不过当然也有不用图,或者和美术商量着出图的。大多数情况下还是建议策划师自己来设计出布局图比较好。

至于其他部分的用图,比如下面这样也是好的:

3e04d7b8203fdc17a451c8b10bc86937_b

进阶部分

4. 活用工具

策划案不一定就是单一的Office Word文档或者txt文件,有很多工具其实也能很好的完成策划案的任务。用的比较多的就是 Wiki。

大家知道Wiki的好处主要有两个:

1. 可以协同工作

2. 可以快速跳转

第一个特性帮助策划团队完成工作,并能追踪版本更新。第二个特性帮助阅读者快速跳转到具体的页面。这也避免了过于臃肿的策划案的出现。

当然Wiki写策划案也是有弊端的,比如一般需要专人管理和由于系统间关系不直观不容易跟踪而大量被荒废等问题。

除了Wiki,也有策划会用Flash或者其他的工具来制作原型,为了“清晰易懂”的表达自己的观点。

5. 策划案也需要创意

这点和第四点有点类似,但是我还是将它分开,为了更好地说明问题。

有一种叫做One Page Design的东东早些年得到了不少的曝光,他告诉你其实策划案也可以是这样的:

121d6f71351cdae30b77a3f5504346e8_b

4da0a669132d6cdf614c2fcca661aa50_b

这种是GDC 10 年上一个来自暴雪/EA的Designer介绍的One-Page Design,他的想法是将所有某个系统相关的内容都在一页内表示,通过图片和大小位置关系来表达其联系,辅以文字描述帮助阅读的人理解。

这是个非常好的想法,但是的确也有很多问题,比如难以更新和查找特定内容,系统复杂后会更能难制作等。

当然也还有别的创意策划方式,比如下图:

86a8068b6e5e46d0c265948d46ec10eb_b1a7a213a9d18353e613ce833cc5659d8_b

上图中是正在用乐高展示关卡设计的小岛秀夫,下图是小岛秀夫用名片和磁带解释MGS2里Big Shell的结构。不管图里是不是在作秀,但是小岛君在接受Gamespot的采访的时候的确表示到,MGS2的设计过程中,设计师大量使用到乐高玩具来搭建关卡模型,方便讨论和理解。这也是我所说的“创意策划案”的一种衍生理解了。

6. 策划案不是万能的

现在其实也有这个声音,就是完善的策划案比不上简单的策划加上快速的交流。有些工作室也已经尝试“去策划案”行动了。

这是因为策划案本身的撰写,包括上面提到的各种方法,都是需要成本的,有时候这些交流的成本已经高于策划案带来的价值了。所以有很多小型团队或者原型制作组会考虑和策划师直接交流而非通过策划案交流的方式(也就是俗称“开会”)来了解策划意图和进行制作。

游戏行业目前还远没有电影行业那么发达,有统一和制作规范和标准,所以说不论什么方法,能够“清晰易懂”的准确表达策划意图的策划案,都是好策划案。

 

转自:GameRes游资网

转载请注明:【GA游戏策划新手营】 » 新手怎么写好游戏策划案?

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