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额外加分:深度vs复杂度

策划视频 sean 2869浏览 13评论

复杂的游戏不见得好玩,有深度的游戏才好玩。这句话说来简单,要做到可没那么容易。很多游戏策划往往以为只要把游戏做得够复杂,离高大上也就不远了。图样图森破。游戏策划的工作应该是从最小的复杂度里挖掘出最大的深度,获得深度对复杂度的最高性价比,这才能做出一款让群众喜闻乐见的游戏。今天我们就来聊聊如何减少不必要的复杂度,增加有意义的深度。

字幕译文

我们竟然没有做过这样一集节目!好吧。

我确定我们好多次都触及这方面的内容,但还没完全聊过这个话题,所以这次不能错过。我们今天要谈如何平衡电子游戏里的深度和复杂度……或者说得更准确点,我们要谈谈这两者间应该保持一个什么关系。

游戏策划的工作基本上是从最小的复杂度里挖出最大的深度。说到这儿差不多就能结束了,但 —— 逗你玩的 —— 还是详细讲讲其中的含义吧。先从深度开始。

深度是指源自规则、花样百出的可能性或“有意义的选择”。所以井字棋就没啥深度,因为规则没有为玩家创造花样百出的可能性。早年的射击游戏也常常办不到,因为虽然有很多小变化,但算不上花样百出。就算从8像素外的右边一枪打过来,其实也没啥不一样。解决这个问题的第一招就是造出不同的武器和不同的敌人类型,还有不同的战斗场景,这能带来真正花样百出的变化:到底选机关枪还是火箭筒,这个选择很有意义。最近的在线FPS游戏有一整套的关卡和装备系统,可以让长时间的在线游戏保持所需深度。这些系统帮忙为玩家创造出更宽泛的“有意义选择”。

但是玩家如果使用不当,深度就连P都不是。深度来自于玩家思考和使用规则给予的选项,从而做出有意义的选择。当我们讲初级最优策略可能会毁掉一款游戏的深度,指的就是这个。

这个说法可能有点矫情,但我还是要讲:深度完全就是心理活动。如果玩家不能想“我该用火箭筒还是机关枪”,如果他们不能对此做出选择,那么就没有深度。无论是LoL、《万智牌》还是《使命召唤》,深度都来自于玩家利用规则给予的选项做出有意义的选择并能从中学习。如果办不到的话,那就没有深度。

接下来就是复杂度。最通俗说来,复杂度是游戏给玩家带来的精神负担。稍微展开来说:“精神负担”可以算作玩家为了做出有意义的选择而必须存储的数据、处理的规则和做出的估计。

所以按照这个定义,规则有多复杂并不重要,重要的是各种游戏间除了各自的规则,什么影响了游戏的复杂度?

首先当然是UI/UE。屏幕上的选项堆得越乱,它们的位置、外在、形状或颜色就越不直观,玩家也就需要在头脑中存储越多的数据,而不是轻而易举地就能使用这些元素。最明显的例子就是《矮人要塞》:游戏虽好,但压根没法流行,搞得实在太复杂了。

我们以前就讲过,但我还是要再讲一遍:反直觉的UI是没活路的。别把你的UI弄成一团糟。我们已经用详细的例子解释过:如果你的UI能方便玩家了解游戏,你就能减少他们必须知道的数据,让他们轻而易举地理解你的规则,甚至帮助他们预估如何做出有意义的选择。一个好的教程能够减少游戏的复杂度,你能更好地理解它。这看起来显而易见,但最复杂的游戏往往教程最烂,因为游戏的复杂度导致了它们的教程难以完成。但如果你在纠结如何把游戏清楚地教会别人,你就已经把它弄得很复杂了。

接下来,看一些不那么明显的例子。首先,咱们讲讲游戏的节奏是如何影响复杂度的。这个问题的本质是:你想让玩家每秒盘算多少次?

把你在射击类游戏里的决策过程和一款回合制策略类游戏作比较。虽然后者有多得多的计算和规则,但想想做决定的节奏,回合制策略类游戏并不比大多数现代射击类游戏“复杂”。如果有一款射击类游戏需要和大多数策略类游戏进行同样程度的数据存储、规则处理和计算,它会非常难搞,会烦死你。所以当你考虑什么程度的复杂度适合你的玩家时,想想游戏的节奏。你希望他们每秒做出多少决定?这能告诉你那些决定有多复杂。

接下来,咱们讲一下简化不了的复杂度。Paradox公司的大型战略类游戏在《你也许没玩过的游戏》系列(因为它们都很好玩)里出现过多次,但它们往往有一个共同的问题:你在玩之前必须学会所有的规则。如果教程不能分散在玩的过程中 —— 如果玩家必须在玩之前就搞懂一切 —— 你就已经定下了一条非常复杂的规则。这让玩家有更重的精神负担,因为他们压根不可能练习和熟悉每条规则。而且这常常意味着玩法本身无法分成小任务,这会让人很抓狂。

所以,回到主要问题:深度和复杂度是如何联系在一起的?

哪怕游戏规则可以带来花样百出的结果,只有在玩家“玩”得动的时候,深度才有意义,否则游戏复杂度只会限制它的深度。我们前面讲到了《矮人要塞》,90%玩过的人由于游戏太复杂都没能领会到它的深度。这是一款深不可测的精彩游戏,但我认识的人里几乎没几个不是玩了15分钟就退的 —— 所以几乎没人感受过它的深度 —— 哪怕过了1、2个礼拜再玩也没玩出个所以然。深度与复杂度并行,但复杂度却能限制深度。

你经常会听到游戏策划说策划中的简洁性。简洁的策划就是深度对复杂度的高性价比,像是《GO围棋》。我见过的许多策划都把简洁性视为策划的终极目标。我不信这一套(我相信参与度才应该是目标),但既然复杂度有点像有限资源,让你可以通过它为游戏创造深度,我相信策划的工作就是寻求深度/复杂度的最大性价比。

所以,用一句话回答大家的问题就是:

复杂的游戏不见得好玩,有深度的游戏才好玩。

但愿这一集能帮上你!下周见。

 

转载请注明:【GA游戏策划新手营】 » 额外加分:深度vs复杂度

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